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Net Promoter Score (NPS)

Net Promoter Score (NPS)

Net Promoter Score, often abbreviated as NPS, is a metric used to gauge customer loyalty and satisfaction. It serves as a valuable tool for businesses to assess the likelihood of customers recommending their products or services to others. The concept of NPS was introduced by Fred Reichheld in a Harvard Business Review article in 2003 and has since become a crucial part of customer relationship management.

TL;DR What is Net Promoter Score?

In simple terms, Net Promoter Score, or NPS, is a measure that helps businesses understand how satisfied their customers are and how likely they are to spread the word about their positive experiences.


The importance of Net Promoter Score in the context of marketing cannot be overstated. It provides businesses with a straightforward and actionable way to gauge customer sentiment. By asking a single question, “On a scale of 0 to 10, how likely are you to recommend our product/service to a friend or colleague?” companies can categorize customers into three groups:

  1. Promoters (score 9-10): These are highly satisfied customers who are likely to promote the brand to others.
  2. Passives (score 7-8): These customers are satisfied but not enthusiastic enough to actively promote the brand.
  3. Detractors (score 0-6): These customers are dissatisfied and may even discourage others from using the product or service.

The Net Promoter Score is calculated by subtracting the percentage of detractors from the percentage of promoters. This score provides a clear indicator of overall customer satisfaction and loyalty.

NPS has a profound impact on marketing strategies because it helps businesses identify areas for improvement and measure the effectiveness of their customer-centric initiatives. It guides marketing campaigns by focusing efforts on converting passives into promoters and addressing issues that lead to detractors. Furthermore, a high NPS can serve as a powerful marketing tool, as it demonstrates to potential customers the company’s dedication to providing a positive experience.

Examples/Use Cases

Here are some real-life examples of how Net Promoter Score has been applied in various industries:

  • Tech Company: A leading tech company uses NPS to gather feedback from its users. By analyzing the NPS data, they identified that users who received personalized onboarding were more likely to become promoters. This led to a revamp of their onboarding process.
  • Retail Chain: A retail chain tracks NPS scores for individual stores. Stores with consistently high NPS scores receive recognition and additional resources, motivating employees to provide excellent customer service.
  • Online Marketplace: An online marketplace uses NPS to measure the satisfaction of both buyers and sellers. They discovered that improving dispute resolution processes positively impacted NPS for both user groups.


  • Customer Experience
  • Customer Relationship Management
  • Market Research
  • Business Analytics
  • Data-driven Marketing



  • Customer Loyalty Score
  • Loyalty Index
  • Recommendation Score



Key Components/Features

  • The NPS Question: The primary component is the NPS question itself: “On a scale of 0 to 10, how likely are you to recommend our product/service to a friend or colleague?”
  • Promoters, Passives, Detractors: The classification of customers into these three categories.
  • Calculation: The formula for calculating NPS: (Percentage of Promoters – Percentage of Detractors).
  • Feedback Collection: Methods for collecting and analyzing customer feedback.

Related Terms

  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Customer Retention
  • Customer Feedback
  • Customer Churn
  • Customer Segmentation

Tips/Best Practices

  1. Act on Feedback: Act promptly on the feedback received from detractors to address their concerns and potentially convert them into promoters.
  2. Segmentation: Segment your NPS data by demographics or customer behavior to gain deeper insights into different customer groups.
  3. Continuous Monitoring: Implement NPS as an ongoing process rather than a one-time survey to track changes in customer sentiment.
  4. Employee Engagement: Recognize and reward employees for contributing to high NPS scores through exceptional customer service.
  5. Benchmarking: Compare your NPS scores with industry benchmarks to understand how you fare against competitors.

Further Reading/Resources


What is the Net Promoter Score (NPS)?

The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is a metric used to measure customer loyalty and satisfaction. It is based on a single question: “On a scale of 0 to 10, how likely are you to recommend our product/service to a friend or colleague?” Customers are classified as promoters (score 9-10), passives (score 7-8), or detractors (score 0-6). The NPS is calculated by subtracting the percentage of detractors from the percentage of promoters.

How is Net Promoter Score different from customer satisfaction?

Net Promoter Score (NPS) and customer satisfaction (CSAT) are related but distinct metrics. NPS focuses on the likelihood of customers recommending a product or service, while CSAT measures overall satisfaction. NPS provides insights into customer loyalty and advocacy, while CSAT assesses the general sentiment regarding a specific interaction or experience.

Can a high Net Promoter Score guarantee business success?

While a high Net Promoter Score is a positive indicator of customer loyalty and satisfaction, it does not guarantee business success on its own. Other factors, such as product quality, pricing, and competition, also play a significant role. However, a high NPS can be a valuable asset, as it can lead to increased customer retention and word-of-mouth referrals.

How frequently should a company collect NPS data?

The frequency of collecting NPS data can vary depending on the industry and business goals. Many companies collect NPS data on a regular basis, such as quarterly or annually, to track trends and make informed decisions. However, some businesses may choose to collect NPS data continuously to address issues promptly.

How can a company improve its Net Promoter Score?

To improve the Net Promoter Score, a company should focus on addressing the concerns of detractors, converting passives into promoters, and providing exceptional customer experiences. This may involve refining products or services, enhancing customer support, and actively listening to customer feedback to make necessary improvements.

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